Questionnaires Developed at PRIDE
Self-report questionnaires are often used for initial patient assessment and for measuring treatment effects and responsiveness. Three unique clinical questionnaires, the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI), and the Fear-Avoidance Components Scale (FACS) have been developed and validated at PRIDE. All patients who enter the PRIDE functional restoration program complete a comprehensive self-report test battery, including these three measures, at admission, and all those who finish the program complete an identical battery at discharge.
Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ)
The PDQ is a self-report questionnaire designed to measure functional disability in patients with pain disorders involving the neuromuscluloskeletal system. The PDQ has demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, including test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 and a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.96. In fact, the PDQ has been shown to have better psychometric properties than other similar self-report disability questionnaires that have been reported in the literature. In addition, higher PDQ scores, both before and after functional restoration treatment, have been shown to be predictive of poorer socioeconomic outcomes one-year after treatment discharge, including poorer rates of work return and retention.
The PDQ uses a visual analog scale, scored from 0 to 10, for each of the 15 items. Add the items to determine a Total Functional Disability score, which ranges from 0 to 150. Five functional disability severity levels have been recommended to aid clinical interpretation: Mild = 1 – 40; Moderate = 41 -70; Severe = 71 – 100; Very Severe = 101 – 130; and Extreme = 131 – 150. Two subscale scores can also be determined. The score total from items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13 indicate a Functional Status Component (FSC), and the score total from items 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15 indicate a Psychosocial Component (PC).
- Anagnostis C, Gatchel R, Mayer T. (2004). The Pain Disability Questionnaire: A New Psychometrically Sound Measure for Chronic Musculo-skeletal Disorders. SPINE. October; 29(20): 2290-2302.
- Gatchel R, Mayer T, Theodore B. (2006). The Pain Disability Questionnaire: Relationship to One-Year Functional and Psychosocial Rehabilitation Outcomes. The Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. March; 16(1): 75-94.
Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI)
- Myofascial Pain Syndrome
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome
- Migraine/Tension Type Headaches
- Restless Leg Syndrome
- Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
English version of the CSI:
- Mayer TG, Neblett R, Cohen H, Howard KJ, Choi YH, Williams MJ, Perez Y, Gatchel RJ. (2012). The development and psychometric validation of the central sensitization inventory. Pain Practice. April; 12(4):276-85.
- Neblett, R, Choi, Y, Hartzell, M, Williams, M, Cohen, H, Mayer, TG, Gatchel, RJ (2013). Establishing clinically relevant cutoff scores for the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI). The Journal of Pain. May; 14(5): 438-445.
- Neblett R, Hartzell M, Cohen H, Mayer T, Williams M, Choi Y, Gatchel R. (2015). Ability of the Central Sensitization Inventory to Identify Central Sensitivity Syndromes in an Outpatient Chronic Pain Sample. Clinical Journal of Pain. April; 31(4): 323-332.
- Neblett R; Hartzell M; Mayer TG; Cohen H; Gatchel RJ. (2016). Establishing Clinically Relevant Severity Levels for the Central Sensitization Inventory. Accepted for publication in Pain Practice: The Official Journal Of World Institute Of Pain. 2016 Mar; [Epub ahead of print].
Mexican/Central American Spanish CSI:
Developed at PRIDE (2012)
European Spanish CSI:
Developed by Antonio I Cuesta-Vargas, PhD, and colleagues, Cátedra de Fisioterapia, Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidad de Malaga, Andalucia Tech, Instituto Investigacion de Biomédica de Malaga (IBIMA) Grupo de Clinimetria (F-14). Av/ Arquitecto Peñalosa s/n (Teatinos Campus Expansion) 29009 Malaga (Spain)
(Psychometric validation has been completed and has been accepted for publication in SpringerPLUS, an open-access journal)
Developed by Laurent Pitance, PhD, and colleagues, Clinical research institute (IREC), Université Catholique de Louvain, Oral and maxillo-facial Surgery Department and Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels
(Psychometric validation has been completed and presented at the IFOMPT congress in Glasgow – July 2016.)
Pitance, L., Piraux, E., Lannoy, B., Meeus, M., Berquin, A., Eeckhout, C., … & Roussel, N. (2016). Cross cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the French version of the central sensitization inventory. Manual Therapy, 25, e83-e84.
(A manuscript is currently being prepared for journal submission.)
Developed by Professor C.Paul van Wilgen, PT, PhD. Vrije Universiteit Brussel · Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy; Jeroen Kregel, MSc, PhD Student Ghent University, Gent · Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy; Professor Jo Nijs, PT, MT, PhD Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels · Physiotherapy, Human Physiology & Anatomy (KIMA); and colleagues.
Kregel J, Vuijk PJ, Descheemaeker F, Keizer, D., van der Noord, R., Nijs, J., … & van Wilgen, P. (2016).The Dutch Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI): Factor Analysis, Discriminative Power and Test-Retest Reliability. Clin J Pain. Jul;32(7):624-30.
Developed by Tomohiko Nishigami, PT, PhD, and colleagues, The Sansom Institute for Health Research, The University of South Australia, School of Health Sciences, City East Campus, Adelaide, SA
(Psychometric validation is currently in progress)
Developed by Dr. Dibyendunarayan Bid, PT, and colleagues, The Sarvajanik College of Physiotherapy, Rampura, Surat
(Psychometric validation is currently in progress)
Fear Avoidance Components Scale (FACS)
Pain-related avoidance of activities, due to fear of increased pain or (re)injury, is a common problem for people with painful medical conditions. Fear-avoidance (FA) can lead to decreased functioning and to disability from activities of daily living. Though other self-report measures of FA are available, they have been criticized for not adequately evaluating all important components of FA. The Fear-Avoidance Components Scale (FACS), originally introduced in 2015, is a new measure of FA that attempts to improve on these earlier instruments by comprehensively evaluating important cognitive, behavioral, and affective components of FA in patients with painful medical conditions.
The FACS has 20 items, scored on a 6-point Likert scale, for a total score range of 0 to 100. Total scores indicate one of the following severity levels: Subclinical (0-20); Mild (21-40); Moderate (41-60); Severe (61-80); and Extreme (81-100). In its initial published validation study, the FACS demonstrated strong test-retest reliability (Pearson r between .9 and .94) and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha between .89 and .92). The FACS severity levels corresponded well with score distributions from different subject populations with painful medical conditions. Subjects with the highest level of functioning, and presumably the lowest disability and FA, scored in the lower FACS severity levels. Subjects with the lowest levels of functioning, and presumably the highest disability and FA, scored in the higher FACS severity levels. In addition, strong associations were found among FACS scores and other FA-related psychosocial patient-reported outcome variables and objective lifting performance variables in a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder population admitted to an interdisciplinary functional restoration program.
- Neblett R, Mayer TG, Hartzell MM, Williams MJ, Gatchel RJ. The fear-avoidance components scale (FACS): Development and psychometric evaluation of a new measure of pain-related fear avoidance. Pain Practice: The Official Journal Of World Institute Of Pain. 2016 Apr; 16 (4):435-50.